Questions and sample answers on research concepts and theoretical models on human development

Describe the person-in-environment model

The person-in-environment model started during the beginnings of social work, and its primary focus is the individual and the process of social reform. The framework is grounded on the notion that a person and the behavior observed cannot be fully comprehended if the various aspects of their environment are not explored. The different aspects of the research subject’s environment include social, temporal, political, economic, religious and physical aspects that comprise their surrounding context. The early research works of Mary Richmond in social casework and also Jane Adams’ work under the settlement house movement laid the…

Describes the theoretical models explaining food insecurity

According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems model, the aspects of food insecurity fall under various aspects of the subjects’ lives about their capacity, ability, and effectiveness in accessing food. The aspects of food insecurity fall under four aspects including the macro system level, which covers the worldview of the people that are facing food insecurity (Berk, 2000). The second aspect is related to the nature of the exosystem. The exosystem is among the area that is commonly explored to uncover food insecurity. This aspect covers aspects like the income levels of the people facing the threat of food inadequacy. The third aspect of food insecurity spans both the exo- and mesosystem level, and the variables that can….

What are the theoretical concepts behind defense mechanism?

A defense mechanism is a coping strategy or technique that is used to reduce the anxiety that results from the impulses that are unacceptable or that could be harmful. Defense mechanisms are employed unconsciously, therefore, should not be confused with the coping strategies that are employed directly (Schacter, 2011). Defense mechanisms are the psychological techniques that are brought into action by the unconscious mind. Defense mechanisms operate by denying, manipulating or distorting reality, so as suppress or prevent the feelings of anxiety or undesirable impulses. Acting out is a defense mechanism that is commonly used by people during the…

Use psychological mdel to explain the processional development of children

Erikson’s first stage in the processional development explained in the psychosocial theory is that of building trust or mistrust for the people around the child. The indicators of care, primarily in the mother and father include touch and visual contact (Bee & Boyd, 2009). The outcomes include the development of trust, confidence, and a positive outlook if the caring is sufficient. In the case the caring and handling offered is insufficient, the child develops the feelings of worthlessness, mistrust for people and the world and a sense of insecurity. In a similar way, Ainsworth’s theory of attachment is a psychological model that explains the dynamics of…

What is a family subsystem?

Family subsystem refers to a dyad, triad or another set of members that are connected by the particular association that exists between the members. A power hierarchy characterizes the groups, ordinarily having the parental subsystem at the top and the offspring subsystem at the bottom.
b) Boundaries are the bounds that govern the interactions and relations taking place in the family system and between the family and the people that are external to it. Boundaries are the lines of demarcation that give information on the people that are outside, thus not members of…

How does the thinking process of children work?

From the observation of cognitive development among children, Piaget explains that the thinking processes of children are relatively different from those of adults. However, the position does not mean that children are less intelligent or that their thinking processes are lesser, but that their style is different from that of adults. In addition to the distinctive style of thinking reported in children, Piaget stated that children are born with a genetically inherited model of the mind. Further, the mental model of children develops further over the years, and it forms the foundation that…

Describe the model of operant conditioning?

Operant conditioning is the learning and training model that employs both positive and negative manipulation of the surrounding environment, so as to stimulate the change of the behaviors of the subjects. The model entails the use of positive and negative reinforcements after the expected response is demonstrated or not shown. Operant conditioning is used in social work in various ways (Zastrow, 2012). During the course of social work programs, the workers doing subject assessment using behavioral analysis use operant conditioning in three fundamental steps. Firstly, they identify the problems that are observed; secondly, establish the…

What role does environment play in the individual’s development?

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system maintains that an individual’s development is affected by the variables of their environment. The environment that surrounds the individual can be divided into five levels, including the microsystem, exosystem, and other higher ones. From the lens of the ecological system, the video is a clear depiction of the different levels of environment and the people in it, and the way they affect the development of the child (Berk, 2000). At the microsystem environment of the child, there are the people in the child’s immediate environment, for example, parents, teachers, and the people in….

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