Questions and sample answers on Use of Dexchlorpheniramine Maleate in the Management of Allergic Rhinitis

Describe the pathophysiology of rhinitis

Depending on the degree of exposure to environmental, allergens further sensitization leads to the production of allergen-specific IgE that activates release of mediators. These mediators (histamine) account for dilation of the arteries, itching, exudation of mucous and intensified vascular activity that spreads marginally attaching itself superficially on every mast cells and basophils.  Continued exposure of the nasal cavity to the allergens (pollens) activates both the mast cells and…

Describe etiology of rhinitis

Medically rhinitis is classified into categories manner in which the disease is cause. It can be classified depending on the duration of the symptoms and degree of symptom exposure as either mild or severe; it is, however, significant to catalogue the severity and extent of exposure to symptoms as this will inform the evaluation approach for individual patients (Warrington, Watson, Kim & Antonetti, 2011). While the primary focus of clinical diagnosis is to establish the history and physical examination, Phlebotomy is used in the identification of specific triggers of allergic reactions. In the diagnosis of Jacks rye grass allergy, use of…

What is the pharmacology of rhinitis?

Histamine is a group of chemicals that play the main role in allergic responses. It operates by distending the blood vessels thus making the walls penetrable. Antihistamines operate  by inhibiting the discharge of histamine from mast cells, and in so doing the allergic responses to exposures (to pollen) is blocked. Dexchlorpheniramine maleate as a derivative of Dexchlorpheniramine salts, aggressively blocks endogenous histamine by binding selectively to H1 receptors, thus by precluding the activities of histamine on bronchial smooth muscle, capillaries and gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. It provides an antagonistic with anti-allergic activity in opposition to histamine thereby preventing the action of histamine mainly in instantaneous hypersensitivity (Warrington, Watson, Kim & Antonetti 2011). The action of…

What are the metabolism effects of dexchlorpheniremine?

The ability of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate to yield its therapeutic effect has been proven by the competitive antagonist of the histamine H 1 receptor sites. 72% of the drug binds to the plasma protein and is completely absorbed directly, Excretion of the Dexchlorpheniramine maleate is slow, and only small amount of it is recovered in excreta during 48 hours after administration. Chlorpheniramine is extensively metabolized and excreted in the urine as mono- and di desmethyl chlorpheniramine, unidentified metabolites and small amounts of chlorpheniramine are notable in the…

What are the side effects of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate?

Dexchlorpheniramine maleate used as the drug of choice in the management of allergic rhinitis has side effects especially on individuals with allergic reactions; these reactions include difficulty in breathing and swelling of the face. However, less serious occurrences associated with this drug  are sleepiness, dizziness, headache,  and dry mouth.  Dexchlorpheniramine maleate causes dizziness and drowsiness and, therefore, should be avoided while driving, operating machinery, or performing other risky activities. Interactions with other groups of compounds such as phenelzine (Nardil) may lead to serious side effects. Drugs used in the management of a cough, cold, allergy, or insomnia may contain prescriptions analogous to dexchlorpheniramine, and are likely to cause an antihistamine overdose (Nickel et al, n.d.). Jack will not have serious side effects of this drug as he has…

What are the contraindications of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate?

Antihistamines are however contraindicated in infants and lactating mothers, qualified medical advice is recommended in patients with hypertension, heart disease, hyperthyroidism, increased IOP, diabetes mellitus, prostatic hypertrophy and bronchial asthma because they are…

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